Russia and Near Abroad


Russia and Near Abroad

The origin and establishment of the Soviet Union can be attributed to the occurrence of the Russian Revolution during the 1917 and the notable civil wars, namely, the Russian Civil War and the Polish-Soviet War. Vladimir Lenin was originally the leader of the Bolsheviks which came to be the major force in politics during the all throughout the Russian Empire. They became very radical in fighting against the monarchist forces which lasted in so many years and had to have a bloody end.

The Bolsheviks came to be the victor of the Civil War which led the foundation of the new Russian government named as the Russian Soviet Republic which was pioneered by the republics of Ukraine, Belarus, and Transcaucasia. In the end, they formed the Union Soviet of Socialist Republics (Kenez, 2006). The Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Transcaucasian SFSR, a convention of plenipotentiary delegations, endorsed the Treaty of Creation of the USSR and the Declaration of the Creation of the USSR on December 29, 1922 which formally founded the USSR.

To confirm the two documents approved during the convention, Mikha, Tskhakaya, Mikhail Kalinin, Mikhail Frunze, and Aleksandr Chervyakoy, Grigory Petrovsky signed them on December 30, 1922. The Soviet Union rule was authored by the four elements. These elements include the ethnic federalism, state socialism, hierarchy of the soviets and the dominance of the Communist Party. Programs launched by Gorbachev such as perestroika and glasnost resulted to deep-seated unanticipated consequences that eventually lead to the fall of the Soviet system.

In order to save and restore the Soviet state, Gorbachev repetitively and continually tried to establish a federation or alliance of political leaders who would support his proposed reform programs. He instituted new grounds and foundations of power. He carried out these policies because he desired to provide solutions for the stern economic crises and political lethargy that undoubtedly exposed the Soviet Union into a status of long-standing stagnation.

Through Gorbachev’s structural reform programs which was directed to broaden the opportunities for the political leaders and popular factions and interest groups in the union republics to amplify authority, he also made the Soviet system became vulnerable by allowing the orthodox communist, nationalist and populist movements to go against his efforts to loosen and invigorate the Soviet communism (Kenez, 2006).

Even though there were attempts and efforts to reinstate the Soviet system all in all with a liberal democratic form of government, some stipulated sovereignty for the state republics. However, some demanded the reinstatement of the original Soviet government. In due course, Gorbachev could not counterfeit a concession among these movements and the result was the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The end of the Soviet Union was marked by four major events.

The first one is the dissolution of the Soviet Union, when the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union had finally surrendered its power on February 7, 1990. Upon the give up of Communist Party, many Soviet constituent republics conducted their first viable elections. They began claiming independence against the prime state of Russia, its capital –Moscow. The bloody civil war that occurred in Lithuania was named as the initial factor that weakened Soviet and doomed its fall. The second event was the occurrence of the August Coup.

Gorbachev, in order to restore and save the old Soviet rule, had planned to sign a New Union Treaty, which would make the Soviet less centralized and would prevent the complete disintegration of the USSR. However, other government officials across the Soviet decided to do something in order to thwart Gorbachev’s implementation of the New Treaty. The forces against Gorbachev became successful in taking way the power of Gorbachev. They put Gorbachev under house arrest and attempted to get the sympathy of the public and other public figures.

But the Russian SFSR president did not support the coup and instead he condemned it. On August 21, the coup ended but this did not really revive the power of Gorbachev. The third even was the aftermath of the coup which described the deterioration of the member of the Communist party for the sake of government positions, the declaration of sovereignty of some Soviet states such as the three Baltic States, and the deterioration of the economy of the Soviet state. These were the ill effects of the coup.

The last event marked the complete fall of the USSR. On December 1 1991, when the Ukrainian referendum won having ninety percent voters voted for independence. And finally, the pioneer state republics who originally form the USSR signed an agreement which officially dissolved the union of the Soviet constituent republics. This agreement was known as the Belavezha Accords. The extinction of the USSR was intensified by the resignation of Gorbachev as the president of it.

As part of the consequences brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union, the states of the former USSR were made independent states and marked the entire disintegration of the Soviet state. When the Soviet rule ended, Russia has experienced severe crises particularly in its economy. In 1992, 25% of its population was said to live at the poverty line (Kenez, 2006). In addition, the life expectancy declined, birthrate decreased, and the Gross Domestic Product had split fifty-fifty.

As an analysis, the post-Soviet period marked the worst condition of Russia. Poverty became the leading problem of the state. The previous conflicts against former constituents of Russia persisted to disturb and interfere on the attempts to restructure Russia. Russia’s local and national government were unstable and its international relations were also dire. At present, the economy of Russia has started to get better significantly, caused by main investments and business expansion and also because of expensive costs of natural resources.

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